The Agnnuak

Approximately, they are about 100,000 people living in the western Ethiopia bordering with the Sudan following the banks of the Baro River.

Geographically, they share both from the Ethiopian and Sudan regions but the maximum are living in the Ethiopian territory of Gambella region. They speak the Nilo-Saharan language family group, which is similar to the surrounding societies. They are permanent farmers who settle in certain area and practice subsistence agriculture. Crops like, sorghum, maize and corn are the main production of the people. During the dry season, fishing is also practiced in the Baro River, which is rich in Tilapia fish, catfish, golden fish and more. Cattle are very important in the society for dowry and other basic needs.

The Agnnuak's are polygamous society in which men can have up to 3 wives based on the number of cattle he has for dowry. Both the Men and Women are known with doted scars on their faces for adornment purposes, Tobacco smoking is very common among the groups using different pipes made from bamboo trees.

The Nuers

Like the Agnnuak, the Nuers are occupying the territory of Ethiopia and the Sudan. The Ethiopian Nuers are living on the western plains of Gambella region following the Baro River and its tributaries.

They are approximately 60,000 people grouped under the Nilo-Saharan language family. They are cattle breeders but as an addition they also have small farmlands for their sorghum, maize and other productions. Fishing and hunting are also the other activities of this group.

The Nuers are sharing some cultural elements with the Agnnuak tribes like, circumcision during puberty and extraction of the 4 lower incisors. The main distinctive feature of the Nuer men is the 6 linear scars on their forehead as to mark the passage form adolescent to adult hood social age system. This practice started around the age of 14 with big ritual celebrations. Women also have doted scars on their faces as to beautify themselves and to be selected among the girls for a marriage.

The Surma

The Surma people are living in southwestern Ethiopia stretching from the lower Omo valley up to the border of Sudan. They are grouped under the Nilo-Saharan language family with a number of not more than 10,000 people.

The Surma's, mainly have some cultural shares with their neighboring Mursi people. Women when they reached to their puberty, they pierce the lower part of their lips and insert a wooden or clay made plates/discs. Young Men also pass through a ritual stick fighting ceremony known as the Dueling, which is similar to the Mursi. This ritual makes the man to pass form young hood to the adult one.

They are agro-pastoralists who practice small agriculture to produce maize, sorghum and other cereals. Cattle are also the main economic source of the society besides expressing social status among the group. They get meat, milk and blood for their daily diet and skin for their clothing.