Follwing the distruction of Port Adolis of Aksum on the Red Sea costline in the beginning of 8th CAD, another altenative trade route in the Eastern section of Ethiopia began to be implemented through port Zeyla throught the Guelf of Aden.Then, the new Harbor became an important and frequently used by traders form Africa and beyond who eventually set up their own samall polities in the sourounding highilands. Harar was one of those villages like settelements founded by some Muslim traders in about the 10th CAD.

Harar's social, political, economical and cultural significances were basicly established during the medival periodes of 14t CAD and reached to its apex in military bases around mid of the 16th CAD by the strong leaders of its sultanetes who highly attacked and pushed the Chirstain Empire form their strongholds. Especially, by the time of a certain "Mohammed Ibn Ibrahim Algazi, locally known as Gragne Mohamed or the left handed."

It was during these periods that Harar minted its coingages, established strong commercial relationships with internal and external countries and encircled by a high fortified wall to protect the town form the out side envaderes. Then the power of Harar was startd to be decline in the 19th CAD following the occupation of Egyptions over the town from 1875-1885. Finally, Harar became a part of Ethiopian Chirstain Empire after king Menelik the 2nd of Ethiopia defeated its last Emir, in 1887.

Now Harar is considered to be as the 4th holiest Muslim shirne in the world next to Meca, Medina, and Jeruslalem and is inhabited by the Dominant Harari people. Others like Oromo, Argoba and Amhara societies are also live in this town. The fort that sourounds Harar, the Harari Houses with unique traditional identities, Musumes and Mosques are some of the cultural, historical and religious values of Harar and its sourouning.

The live wild-Hyana man show that is performed by the local communities is also another evening entertainment in the "Walled City".


Is a volcanic land feature sourounded by an orb lava field located on the sumit of Mount Erta ale it self which is in the most northerly extession of Ethiopian Rift valley system and is marked by continous volcanic movements, held with in an approximate radious of 60ms and 100ms depth caldera.

Erta-ale is one of the most challenging but mind blowing natural attractions containing Probably the world's only permanent volcanic lake at its central magma hill. Degassing, light earthquake, land clefting and eruptions are some of the natural events occurred occassionaly in the vicinity.

Rift Valley

Ethiopia is so vibrant in culutral, Historical and geographical features. The East African Rift system is one of the country's geogological image formed by the intense tectonic activites during the Cenozoic Era, which is some 65millions years back. This land formation is only noted form space lying between Syria of Turky to the mouth of the mouth of the Zambezi River in Mozambiq, in Africa. It passes through some countries of Asia, Middle East and Africa as wel. Ethiopia is one among them and portioned the maximum range of the great east African Rift Valley streaching form NE to SW session of the country, dividing it in to 2 major parts.

The Ethiopian rift valley region is maily characterized by a unique bio-diversity and a maginificent land scapes that hosts one of the lowest point on the earthes surface Know as Dallol Depression or Kobal Sink, fars dawn 116-120mts below sea level and the second higest peak called the Sanatie plaut, at the Bale mountains, about 4373masl.

In addition, number of National Parks and Lakes in the country are also existed in this part of environs. To mention but some of the Parks are: - Bale mountains, Awash, Abijata-shalla Lakes, Nechi-Sar, Mago, Omo National parks and Lakes: - Abijata, Salla, Ziway, Langano, Awassa, Abaya, Chamo and so on.

More over the Ethiopian rift valley system has proven to be as the site of an extraordinary archaeological discoveries of human origin. A place called HADAR in Afar Region is the birthplace of LUCY, which is an oldest Hominid fossil that traced back 3.2million years old.

The most colourfuly cultured ethinic groups that accounts more than 50% of the tolal tribal collections are also living in the in north-eastern, southern and south-western part of this region bordering up to Dejibouti in the east, Kenya in the South and Sudan in the Southwest.